NYC Sinus Surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716
Reconstruction rhinoplasty is indicated for the correction of defects and deformities caused by:
- Skin cancer. The most common cause (etiology) for a nasal reconstruction is skin cancer, especially the lesions to the nose of melanoma and basal-cell carcinoma. This oncologic epidemiology occurs more readily among the aged and people who reside in very sunny geographic areas; although every type of skin is susceptible to skin cancer, white-skin is most epidemiologically prone to developing skin cancer. Furthermore, regarding plastic surgical scars, the age of the patient is a notable factor in the timely, post-surgical healing of a skin cancer defect (lesion); in terms of scarrification, the very elastic skin of young people has a greater regenerative propensity for producing scars that are thicker (stronger) and more noticeable. Therefore, in young patients, the strategic placement (hiding) of the rhinoplastic scars is a greater aesthetic consideration than in elder patients; whose less elastic skin produces scars that are narrower and less noticeable. NYC sinus surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716.
- Traumatic nasal defect. Although trauma is a less common rhinoplastic occurrence, a nasal defect or deformity caused by blunt trauma (impact), penetrating trauma (piercing), and blast trauma (blunt and penetrating) requires a surgical reconstruction that abides the conservational principles of plastic surgery, as in the corrections of cancerous lesions.
- Congenital deformities. The unique plastic properties of the bone, cartilage, and skin of patients’ afflicted with congenital defects, and associated anomalies, are considered separately.
The effectiveness of a rhinoplastic reconstruction of the external nose derives from the contents of the surgeon’s armamentarium of skin-flap techniques applicable to correcting defects of the nasal skin and of the mucosal lining; some management techniques are the Bilobed flap, the Nasolabial flap, the Paramedian forehead flap, and the Septal mucosal flap. NYC sinus surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716.
- I. The bilobed flap
The design of the bilobed flap derives from the creation of two (2) adjacent random transposition flaps (lobes). In its original design, the leading flap is applied to cover the defect, and the second flap, is emplaced where the skin flexes more, and fills the donor-site wound (from where the first flap was harvested), which then is closed primarily, with sutures. The first flap is oriented geometrically, at 90 degrees from the long axis of the wound (defect), and the second flap is oriented 180 degrees from the axis of the wound. Although effective, the bilobed flap technique did create troublesome “dog ears” of excess flesh that required trimming and it also produced a broad skin-donor area that was difficult to confine to the nose. In 1989, J. A. Zitelli modified the bilobed flap technique by: (a) orienting the leading flap at 45 degrees from the long axis of the wound; and (b) orienting the second flap at 90 degrees from the axis of the wound. Said orientations and emplacements eliminated the excess-flesh “dog ears”, and thus required a smaller area of donor skin; resultantly, the broad-based, bilobed flap is less prone to the “trap door” and the “pin cushion” deformities common to skin-flap transposition procedure. NYC sinus surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716.
- Surgical technique — the bilobed flap
The design of the bilobed flap co-ordinates its lobes with the long axis of the nasal defect (wound); each lobe of the flap is emplaced at a 45-degree angle to the axis. The two lobes of the bilobed flap rotate along an arc, of which all points are equidistant from the apex of the nasal defect. NYC sinus surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716.
- Based upon the available area of nasal skin, the surgeon selects the locale for the bilobed flap, and orients the pedicle. If the defect is in the lateral aspect of the nose, the pedicle is based medially. If the defect is at the nasal tip, or at the nasal dorsum, the pedicle is based laterally. An ideal location for the second flap is along the junction of the nasal dorsum and the lateral nasal wall.
- The nasal wound is cut and shaped into a teardrop form, by the cutting out of a Burrow’s triangle of flesh on the side of pedicle base. Cutting out the Burrow’s triangle (skin and subcutaneous fat) permits the moving the pedicle flap, to emplace it without buckling the tissues adjacent to the graft.
- Using a 20 mm calliper as a protractor — one tip at the apex of the wound — the surgeon delineates two semi-circles, an inner semi-circle, and an outer semi-circle. The outer semi-circle defines the necessary length of the two lobes of the skin flap. The inner semi-circle bisects the center of the original wound, and continues across the donor skin, establishing limit measure of the pedicle common to the two lobes of the flap. The surgeon then draws two lines from the apex of the wound; the first line drawn is at an angle of 45 degrees from the long axis of the wound, and the second line drawn is at a 90-degree angle from the axis of the wound. The two (2) lines delineate the central axes of the two lobes of the bilobed flap.
- The delineation of each of the two lobes of the flap begins and ends at the inner semi-circle, and extends to the outer semi-circle, to the point where it intersects its central axis. The width of the first lobe is approximately 2 mm narrower than the width of the wound; the width of the second lobe is approximately 2 mm narrower than the width of the first lobe.
- After the cutting from the tissue donor-site, the bilobed flap is elevated to a plane between the subcutaneous fat and the nasalis muscle. The wound is deepened, down to the nasal skeleton, to accommodate the tissue thickness of the bilobed flap. Technically, cutting the wound, enlarging it, is preferable, and safer, than trimming (thinning) the flap to fit the wound.
- Undermining the donor site for the second lobe allows closing it primarily; it also eliminates excess-skin “dog-ears” at the donor site. Moreover, if the donor site cannot be closed with sutures, or if the skin blanches (whitens) when sutured, usually because of excessively tight sutures, the tension is decreased by reducing the size (length, width, depth) of the wound with deep sutures that will allow it to heal more readily.
- II. Nasolabial flap
In the 19th century, the surgical techniques of J.F. Dieffenbach (1792–1847) popularized the nasolabial flap for nasal reconstruction, for which it remains a foundational nose surgery procedure. The nasolabial flap can be either superiorly based or inferiorly based; of which the superiorly based flap is the more practical rhinoplastic application, because it has a more versatile arc of rotation, and the donor-site scar is inconspicuous. Depending upon the how the defect lay upon the nose, the flap pedicle-base can be incorporated either solely to the nasal reconstruction, or it can be divided into a second stage procedure. The blood supply for the flap pedicle are the transverse branches of the contralateral angular artery (the facial artery terminus parallel to the nose), and by a confluence of blood vessels from the angular artery and from thesupraorbital artery in the medial canthus, (the angles formed by the meeting of the upper and lower eyelids). Therefore, the incisions for harvesting the nasolabial flap do not continue superiorly beyond the medial canthal tendon. The nasolabial flap is a random flap that is emplaced with the proximal (near) portion resting upon the lateral wall of the nose, and the distal (far) portion resting upon the cheek, which contains the main angular artery, and so is perfused with retrograde arterial flow. NYC sinus surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716.
- Surgical technique — the nasolabial flap
The pedicle of the nasolabial flap rests upon the lateral nasal wall, and is transposed a maximum of 60 degrees, in order to avoid the “bridge effect” of a flap emplaced across the nasofacial angle. NYC sinus surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716.
- The surgeon designs the nasolabial flap and sets its central axis at a 45-degree angle from the (long) axis of the nasal dorsum. The shape of the skin flap is cut from the wound template fabricated by the surgeon.
- An incision is made to the flap (without an anaesthetic injection of epinephrine), which then is elevated and oriented, in an inferior-to-superior direction, between the subcutaneous fat and the muscle fascia.
- The cutting continues until the skin flap can be freely transposed upon the nasal defect. A Burrow’s triangle is excised from the skin between the medial border of the flap and the nasal dorsum; the triangle can be cut either before or after the elevation of the nasolabial.
- The flap then is bent back (reflected), and can be thinned (cut) under loupe magnification; however, a nasolabial flap cannot be thinned as easily as an axial skin-flap.
- After the nasolabial flap has been emplaced, the flap donor-site wound is sutured closed. For a wound of the lateral nasal wall that is less than 15 mm wide, the flap donor-site can be closed primarily, with sutures. For a wound wider than 15 mm — especially a wound that comprehends the alar lobule and the lateral wall of the nose — primary closure is not indicated, because such a wound closure imposes excessive stresses upon the skin flap, thereby risking either blanching (whitening) or distortion, or both. Such risks are avoided by advancing (moving) the skin of the cheek towards the nasofacial junction, where it is sutured to the deep tissues. Furthermore, a narrow wound, less than 1 mm wide can be allowed to heal by secondary intention (autonomous re-epithelialisation).
- III. The paramedian forehead flap
The paramedian forehead flap is the premier autologous skin graft for the reconstruction of a nose, by replacing any of the aesthetic nasal subunits, especially regarding the problems of different tissue thickness and skin color. The forehead flap is an axial skin flap based upon the supraorbital artery (an ophthalmic artery branch) and the supratrochlear artery (an ophthalmic artery terminus), which can be thinned to the subdermal plexus in order to enhance the functional and aesthetic outcome of the nose. Restricted length is a practical application limit of the paramedian forehead flap, especially when the patient has a low frontal hairline. In such a patient, a small portion of scalp skin can be included to the flap, but it does have a different skin texture and does continue growing hair; such mismatching is avoided with the transverse emplacement of the flap along the hairline; yet that portion of the skin flap is random, and so risks a greater incidence of necrosis. NYC sinus surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716.
The paramedian forehead flap has two disadvantages, one operational and one aesthetic: Operationally, the reconstruction of a nose with a paramedian forehead flap is a two-stage surgical procedure, which might a problem for the patient whose health (surgical suitability) includes significant, secondary medical risks. Nonetheless, the second stage of the nasal reconstruction can be performed with the patient under local anaesthesia. Aesthetically, although the flap donor-site scar heals well, it is noticeable, and thus difficult to conceal, especially in men. NYC sinus surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716.
- Surgical technique — the paramedian forehead flap
The surgeon designs the paramedian forehead flap from a custom-fabricated three-dimensional metal foil template derived from the measures of the nasal defect to be corrected. Using an ultrasonic scanner, the flap-pedicle is centre-aligned upon the Doppler signal of the supraorbital artery. Afterwards, the distal one-half of the flap is dissected and thinned to the subdermal plexus. NYC sinus surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716.
- The surgeon fabricates a metal foil template derived from the dimensions of the nasal wound.
- Tracing the Doppler pulse of the blood flow of the supraorbital artery as far as possible, its delineation is continued as a vertical line, until it intersects with the hairline of the patient. The line extended from the pulse of the blood flow is the central axis of the forehead flap.
- The length of the flap is determined by placing an un-folded, un-stretched 4 x 4-inch gauze upon the wound, and with it measuring from the pedicle base to the distal (farthest) point of the wound. This measure is the length of the central axis of the skin flap.
- The template is rotated 180 degrees and placed over the distal (far) portion of the axis of the skin flap; the surgeon outlines it with a surgical marker. The outline markings are continued proximally and parallel to the central axis, maintaining a 2-cm width for the proximal flap.
- Without applying an injection of anaesthetic epinephrine, the flap is incised (cut), and the distal one-half is elevated between thefrontalis muscle and the subcutaneous fat.
- At approximately the mid-portion of the forehead, the surgeon deepens the plane of the dissection down to the submuscular plane. The dissection continues toward the brow and the glabella (the smooth prominence between the eyebrows) until the skin flap is sufficiently mobile to allow its relaxed transposition upon the nose.
- Under loupe magnification, the distal portion of the forehead flap is de-fatted, down to the subdermal plexus. Yet, the fat-removal should be conservative, especially if the patient is either a tobacco smoker or a diabetic, or both, because such health factors negatively affect blood circulation and tissue perfusion, and thus the timely and correct healing of the surgical scars to the nose.
- The flap is allowed to perfuse, while the donor site is sutured closed by means of the wide undermining deep to the frontalis muscle. At that time, diluted epinephrine can be injected to the forehead skin, but not to the area(s) near the pedicle of the forehead flap. Moreover, if the distal wound is wider than 25 mm, it usually is not closed by primary intention, with sutures, but is allowed to heal by secondary intention, by re-epithelialisation.
- The forehead flap is attached to the nasal wound with subcutaneous sutures and skin sutures. If the excess tension of a suture compromises the color of the skin flap, the suture can be loosened, with a skin hook, and observed for 10–15 minutes; if the skin color remains compromised (white), the suture is removed.
- Upon the complete attachment of the paramedian forehead flap to the nose, the surgical wounds are dressed only with antibiotic ointment.
- IV. Septal mucosal flap
The septal mucosal tissue flap is the indicated technique for correcting defects of the distal half of the nose, and for correcting almost every type of large defect of the mucosal lining of the nose. The septal mucosal tissue flap, which is an anteriorly based pedicle-graft supplied with blood by the septal branch of the superior labial artery. To perform such a nasal correction, the entire septal mucoperichondrium can be harvested. NYC sinus surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716.
- Surgical technique — the septal mucosal flap
The surgeon cuts the anteriorly based septal mucosal tissue-flap as widely as possible, and then releases it with a low, posterior back-cut; but only as required to allow the rotation of the tissue-flap into the nasal wound. NYC sinus surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716.
- The surgeon measures the dimensions (length, width, depth) of the nasal wound, and then delineates them upon the nasal septum, and, if possible, incorporates an additional margin of 3–5 mm of width to the wound measurements; furthermore, the base of the mucosal tissue flap should be at least 1.5-cm wide.
- The surgeon then makes two (2) parallel incisions along the floor and the roof of the nasal septum; the incisions converge anteriorly, towards the front of the nasal spine.
- Using an elevator, the flap is dissected in a sub-mucoperichondrial plane. The (far) distal edge of the flap is cut with a right-angle Beaver blade, and then is transposed into the wound. The exposed cartilages will reepithelialise (regenerate the epithelium), provided the opposite (contralateral) side of the septal mucosa is undisturbed.
A technical variant of the septal mucosal flap technique is the Trap-door flap, which is used to reconstruct one side of the upper half of the nasal lining. It is emplaced in the contralateral nasal cavity, as a superiorly based septal mucosal flap of rectangular shape, like that of a “trap-door”. This septomucosal flap variant is a random flap with its pedicle based at the junction of the septum and the lateral nasal skeleton. The surgeon elevates the flap of septal mucosa to the roof of the nasal septum, and then traverses it into the contralateral (opposite) nasal cavity through a slit made by removing a small, narrow portion of the dorsal roof of the septum. Afterwards, the septomucosal flap is stretched across the wound in the mucosal lining of the lateral nose. NYC sinus surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716.
The following rhinoplastic techniques are applied to the surgical management of: (i) partial-thickness defects; (ii) full-thickness defects; (iii) heminasal reconstruction; and (iv) total nasal reconstruction.
- I. Partial-thickness defects
A partial-thickness defect is a wound with adequate soft-tissue coverage of the underlying nasal skeleton, yet is too large for primary intention closure, with sutures. Based upon the locale of the wound, the surgeon has two (2) options for correcting such a wound: (i) healing the wound by secondary intention (re-epithelialisation); and (ii) healing the wound with a full-thickness skin graft. Moreover, because it avoids the patched appearance of a skin-graft surgical correction, healing by secondary intention can successfully repair nasal wounds up to 10 mm in diameter; and, if the resultant scar proves aesthetically unacceptable, it can be revised later, after the wound has healed.
In the event, larger nasal wounds (defects) do successfully heal by secondary intention, but do present two disadvantages. First, the resultant scar often is a wide patch of tissue that is aesthetically inferior to the scars produced with other nasal-defect correction techniques; however, the skin of the medial canthus is an exception to such scarring. The second disadvantage to healing by secondary intention is that the contracture of the wound might distort the normal nasal anatomy, which can lead to a pronounced deformity of the alar rim area. For this reason, healing by secondary intention generally is not recommended for defects of the distal third of the nose; nonetheless, the exception is a small wound directly upon the nasal tip. NYC sinus surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716.
Full-thickness skin grafts are the effective wound-management technique for defects with a well-vascularized, soft-tissue bed covering the nasal skeleton. The patient’s ear is the preferred skin-graft donor site from which to harvests grafts of pre-auricular skin and grafts of post-auricular skin, usually with an additional, small amount of adipose tissue to fill the wound cavity. Yet, nasal correction with a skin graft harvested from the patient’s neck is not recommended, because that skin is low-density pilosebaceous tissue with very few follicles and sebaceous glands, thus is unlike the oily skin of the nose.
The technical advantages of nasal-defect correction with a skin graft are a brief surgery time, a simple rhinoplastic technique, and a low incidence of tissue morbidity. The most effective corrections are with a shallow wound with sufficient, supporting soft-tissue that will prevent the occurrence of a conspicuous depression. Nonetheless, two disadvantages of skin-graft correction are mismatched skin color and skin texture, which might result in a correction with a patch-work appearance; a third disadvantage is the natural histologic tendency for such skin grafts to contract, which might distort the shape of the corrected nose.
- II. Full-thickness defects
Full-thickness nasal defects are in three types: (i) wounds to the skin and to the soft tissues, featuring either exposed bone or exposed cartilage, or both; (ii) wounds extending through the nasal skeleton; and (iii) wounds traversing all three nasal layers: skin, muscle, and the osseo-cartilaginous framework. Based upon the dimensions (length, width, depth) and topographic locale of the wound and the number of missing nasal-tissue layers, the surgeon determines the rhinoplastic technique for correcting a full-thickness defect; each of the aesthetic nasal subunits is considered separately and in combination. NYC sinus surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716.
- (a) Medial canthus
The skin between the nasal dorsum and the medial canthal tendon is uniquely suited to healing by secondary intention; the outcomes often are superior to what is achieved with either skin grafts or skin-flaps and tissue-flaps. Because the medial canthal tendon is affixed to the facial bone, it readily resists the forces of wound contracture; moreover, the animation (movement) of the medial brow also lends resistance to the forces of wound contracture. Furthermore, the medial canthal region is aesthetically hidden by the shadows of the nasal dorsum and of the supraorbital rim, thereby obscuring any differences in the quality of the color and of the texture of the replacement skin (epithelium).
Healing by secondary intention (re-epithelialisation) occurs even when the wound extends to the nasal bone. Although the rate of healing depends upon the patient’s wound-healing capacity, nasal wounds measuring up to 10 mm in diameter usually heal in at 4-weeks post-operative. Nonetheless, one potential, but rare, complication of this nasal correction approach is the formation of a medial canthal web, which can be corrected with two (2) opposing Z-plasties, technique which relieves the disfiguring tensions exerted by the scar tissue’s contracture, its shape, and location on the nose. NYC sinus surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716.
- (b) Nasal dorsum and lateral nasal wall defect
The size of the nasal defect (wound) occurred, in either the dorsum or the lateral wall, or both, determines the reconstructive skin-flap technique applicable to the corresponding aesthetic nasal subunits. NYC sinus surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716.
- A wound of less than 10 mm in diameter can be managed either by primary intention healing (suturing) or by secondary intention healing (re-epithelialisation).
- A wound measuring 10–15 mm in diameter can be reconstructed with a single-stage modified bilobed flap, because it best matches the skin color and the skin texture of the wounded aesthetic subunit. Although not every scar can be hidden at the margins of the aesthetic nasal subunits concerned, the superior scarring ability of those nasal skin areas minimizes such anhistologic disadvantage. In a patient whose basal-cell carcinoma was excised with Mohs surgery, the scar of the nasal reconstruction (an 11 mm full-thickness, laterally based, bilobed-flap applied down to the bone and the cartilage), was hidden by aligning the axis of the second lobe to and emplacing the skin graft at the junction of the nasal dorsum and the lateral wall of the nose.
- A wound greater than 15 mm in diameter can be corrected with a paramedian forehead flap, which will reconstruct either the entire nasal dorsum or the lateral wall of the nose, as required. The surgical management of such wounds (< 15 mm dia.) usually requires enlarging the wound as necessary, in order for the skin graft to comprehend the entire aesthetic subunit being corrected. Moreover, if the wound comprehends the dorsum and the lateral wall of the nose, then a cheek-advancement skin flap is the applicable correction for replacing the lateral nasal skin up to its junction with the dorsum; afterwards, a paramedian forehead flap is applied to resurface the nasal dorsum.
- A wound in the lateral nasal wall that is greater than 15 mm in diameter can also be corrected with a superiorly based, nasolabial-flap, which is especially suited for correcting distal defects that lay among the convexities of the nasal tip and the alar lobule. The nasolabial flap can correct defects that comprehend the distal two-thirds of the nose, if there is a supply of skin sufficient for constructing the base of the flap pedicle; and the donor sites cannot be closed primarily. Yet, bulkiness is the principal disadvantage of the nasolabial flap — except in elderly patients with atrophic cheek skin; nonetheless, it is technically effective for patients unsuitable for a two-stage rhinoplasty with a paramedian forehead flap.
- Nasal defects involving either the bone or the cartilage of the lateral nose are best managed with free grafts of flat septal bone and of cartilage. Small defects of the nasal dorsum can be covered with cartilage grafts harvested from either the septum or the concha of the ear. The correction of large-area defects of the nasal dorsum requires the stable support of a bone graft affixed either with a lag screw or with a low-profile plate. A costal graft (from the rib cage) is ideal for such a repair, because it can be harvested with an attached extension of cartilage that can be sculpted to blend into the nasal tip; other potential donor sites for nasal dorsum reconstruction materials are the outer table of the skull, the iliac crest, and the inner table of the ilium proper.
- To correct a defect of the nasal lining of the upper two-thirds of the nose, the wound dimensions (length, width, depth) determine the technique. A nasal-lining defect of less than 5 mm in diameter can be closed primarily, with sutures. A nasal-lining defect 5–15 mm in diameter can be closed with a random transposition flap harvested from a nasal area that remains protected, either by the nasal bones or by the upper lateral cartilages; and the flap donor-site can be healed by secondary intention, re-epithelialisation. For a mucosa defect greater than 15 mm in diameter, the indicated correction is a superiorly based “trap door” septal mucosal flap, grafted to the roof of the nasal septum.
- (c) Nasal tip defect
The width of the human nasal-tip ranges 20–30 mm; the average width of the nasal tip, measured between the two alar lobules, is approximately 25 mm. NYC sinus surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716.
- A nasal skin defect of less than 15 mm in diameter can be managed with a bilobed flap; the surgeon trims the edges of the wound (defect) to match its dimensions (length, width, depth) to the natural curve at the border of the nasal tip. If the wound is eccentric, the skin-flap is positioned so that the lateral base of the graft occupies the largest portion of the wound’s surface.
- If the nasal-tip wound is greater than 15 mm in diameter, the surgeon enlarges it to comprehend the entire aesthetic subunit affected by the defect, and the reconstruction of the nasal subunit done with a forehead flap. If the nasal-tip defect also involves the nasal dorsum, a forehead flap is indicated for reconstructing the entire nasal-tip and dorsum.
- If an alar cartilage is missing, either partially or entirely, it is reconstructed with cartilage grafts. The defect of an alar dome, which retains adequate anatomic support-tripod configuration, can be corrected with an onlay graft harvested either from the nasal septum or from the conchal cartilage of an ear. The surgeon forms the cartilage graft into the shape of a shield — its widest margins become the replacement alar domes. Typically, the shield cartilage graft is stacked in two layers, in order to transmit the desired light reflex characteristic of the nasal tip.
- Defects of the lateral crura can be corrected with a flat strut of formed cartilage, but, if the support of the medial crura is absent, then a columella strut must be inserted, and attached at the level of the anterior nasal spine. If a strut of nasal-septum cartilage proves too weak, then a rib cartilage strut can be applied to provide the adequate nasal support; afterwards, the strut is covered with onlay grafts.
- Absent alar cartilages can be replaced using all of the conchal cartilage from both ears; two strips, each 10 mm wide, are harvested from the antihelical fold, and then are applied as replacement alar wings. The surgeon attaches them to the anterior nasal spine, and to each side of the (pear-shaped) pyriform aperture; the remainder of the harvested conchal cartilage is applied as onlay grafts to augment the nasal tip.
- A nasal-tip lining defect is unusual, because of its midline location; yet, the reconstruction is with an anteriorly based septal mucosal flap that is rotated into place to provide adequate coverage and correction of the nasal lining defect.
- Vertical lobule division (VLD) is a common technique for nasal tip refinement, which involves the medial crural angle and the lateral crural angle.
- (d) Alar lobule defect
The appropriate surgical management of an alar lobule defect depends upon the dimensions (length, width, depth) of the wound. Anatomically, the nasal skin and the underlying soft tissues of the alar lobule form a semi-rigid aesthetic subunit that forms the graceful curve of the alar rim, and provides unobstructed airflow through the nostrils, the anterior nares. NYC sinus surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716.
- When most of the alar lobule tissue is missing, the nose collapses; the correction is with an ear concha cartilage-graft harvested from the antihelix, a donor site where the cartilage is most rigidly curved, thus is ideal for replacing an alar lobule.
- Nasal skin defects can be corrected with a medially based bilobed flap, which is emplaced to provide adequate skin coverage for wounds limited to the alar lobule. If the entire lobule is missing, it might be necessary to leave the second-lobe donor-site wound partially open; it will close at 2–4 weeks post-operative; afterwards, the scar can be revised. Nonetheless, the alternative surgical correction is a two-stage, superiorly based, nasolabial flap.
- If the alar lobule defect also comprehends the lateral wall of the nose, the defect can be closed either with a superiorly based nasolabial-flap or with a forehead flap. If the cheek skin is thin and atrophic, a nasolabial flap is the recommended reconstruction; otherwise, a forehead flap is recommended, because the thickness of forehead skin is a superior match for nasal skin and tissue. Mucosal lining defects of the alar lobule can be resurfaced with a bipedicled mucosal advancement-flap harvested from inside the lateral wall of the nose. Likewise, larger defects of the mucosa do require correction with an anteriorly based septal mucosal flap.
- III. Heminasal and total nasal reconstruction
The reconstruction rhinoplasty of an extensive heminasal defect or of a total nasal defect is an extension of the plastic surgical principles applied to resolving the loss of a regional aesthetic subunit. The skin layers are replaced with a paramedian forehead flap, but, if forehead skin is unavailable, the alternative corrections include the Washio retroauricular-temporal flap and the Tagliacozzi flap. The nasal skeleton is replaced with a rib-graft nasal dorsum and lateral nasal wall; septal cartilage grafts and conchal cartilage grafts are applied to correct defects of the nasal tip and of the alar lobules.
The nasal lining of the distal two-thirds of the nose can be covered with anteriorly based septal mucosal flaps; however, if bilateral septal-flaps are used, the septal cartilage does become devascularized, possibly from iatrogenic septal perforation. Furthermore, if the nasal defect is beyond the wound-correction scope of a septal mucosal flap, the alternative techniques are either an inferiorly based pericranial-flap (harvested from the frontal bone) or a free flap of temporoparietal fascia (harvested from the head), either of which can be lined with free grafts of mucosa to achieve the nasal reconstruction. NYC sinus surgery Atlantic Highlands NJ 07716.