Top ENT Sinus Doctor Red Bank NJ 07701
In anatomy, a sinus is a cavity within a bone or other tissue. Most are commonly found in the bones of the face and connecting with the nasal cavities:
In the heart:
- Sinus (botany), a space or indentation, usually on a leaf.
- normal heart rate
Sinus is a sac or cavity in any organ or tissue, or an abnormal cavity or passage caused by the destruction of tissue. In common usage, "sinus" usually refers to theparanasal sinuses, which are air cavities in the cranial bones, especially those near the nose and connecting to it. Each individual has four paired cavities located in the cranial bone or skull. Top ENT Sinus Doctor Red Bank NJ 07701.
Sinus is Latin for "bay", "pocket", "curve", or "bosom". In anatomy, the term is used in various contexts.
The word "sinusitis" is used to indicate that one or more of the membrane linings found in the sinus cavities has become inflamed or infected. It is however distinct from afistula, which is a tract connecting two epithelial surfaces. If left untreated, infections occurring in the sinus cavities can affect the chest and lungs.
Paranasal sinuses are a group of four paired air-filled spaces that surround the nasal cavity. The maxillary sinuses are located under the eyes; the frontal sinuses are above the eyes; the ethmoidal sinuses are between the eyes and thesphenoidal sinuses are behind the eyes. The sinuses are named for the facial bones in which they are located. Top ENT Sinus Doctor Red Bank NJ 07701.
Humans possess four paired paranasal sinuses, divided into subgroups that are named according to the bones within which the sinuses lie:
The paranasal air sinuses are lined with respiratory epithelium (ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium).
Paranasal sinuses form developmentally through excavation of bone by air-filled sacs (pneumatic diverticula) from thenasal cavity. This process begins prenatally, and it continues through the course of an organism's lifetime. Top ENT Sinus Doctor Red Bank NJ 07701.
The results of experimental studies suggest that the natural ventilation-rate of a sinus with a single sinus ostium(opening), is extremely slow. Such limited ventilation may be protective for the sinus, as it would help prevent drying of its mucosal surface and maintain a near-sterile environment with high nitric oxide concentrations and minimal pathogenaccess. Thus composition of gas content in the maxillary sinus is similar to venous blood, with high carbon dioxide and lower oxygen levels compared to breathing air. Top ENT Sinus Doctor Red Bank NJ 07701.
The biological role of the sinuses is debated, but a number of possible functions have been proposed:
- Decreasing the relative weight of the front of the skull, and especially the bones of the face.
- Increasing resonance of the voice.
- Providing a buffer against facial trauma.
- Insulating sensitive structures like dental roots and eyes from rapid temperature fluctuations in the nasal cavity.
- Humidifying and heating of inhaled air because of slow air turnover in this region.
- Regulation of intranasal and serum gas pressures.
- Immunological defense.
The paranasal sinuses are joined to the nasal cavity via small orifices called ostia. These become blocked easily by allergic inflammation, or by swelling in the nasal lining that occurs with a cold. If this happens, normal drainage of mucus within the sinuses is disrupted, and sinusitis may occur. Because the maxillary posterior teeth are close to the maxillary sinus, this can also cause clinical problems if any disease processes are present, such as an infection in any of these teeth. These clinical problems can include secondary sinusitis, the inflammation of the sinuses from another source such as an infection of the adjacent teeth.
These conditions may be treated with drugs such as decongestants, which cause vasoconstriction in the sinuses; reducing inflammation; by traditional techniques of nasal irrigation; or by corticosteroid. Top ENT Sinus Doctor Red Bank NJ 07701.
Malignancies of the paranasal sinuses comprise approximately 0.2% of all malignancies. About 80% of these malignancies arise in the maxillary sinus. Men are much more often affected than women. They most often occur in the age group between 40 and 70 years. Carcinomas are more frequent than sarcomas. Metastases are rare. Tumoursof the sphenoid and frontal sinuses are extremely rare. Top ENT Sinus Doctor Red Bank NJ 07701.